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The course as a whole yields scores more, and Chapters 14—16 will be devoted to three areas in which grammatical and sentential translation loss is particularly frequent. Words Everybody is familiar with dictionaries. They list the practical totality of the words in a given language. This totality is known as the lexis of a language adj. However, meanings are not found exclusively in Grammatical and sentential issues 2 3 4 6 7 8 1 2 4 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 79 the words individually listed in the dictionary. Any text shows that the combination of words creates meanings that they do not have in isolation, and even meanings that are not wholly predictable from the literal senses of the words combined.

In translation, lexical loss can occur for all sorts of reasons. It very often arises from the fact that exact synonymy between SL words and TL words is relatively rare. A few examples among thousands: Another common source of lexical translation loss is the fact that, in any text, words have connotations on top of their literal meaning. The lines from Keats are a good example see pp. We shall look at these questions in more detail in Chapter Grammatical arrangement Lexical issues are a particular category of grammatical issue, so it is not surprising that some of them are most conveniently examined under the heading of grammatical arrangement.

Under this heading, we subsume two types of grammatical structure: In both, what concerns the translator is the fact that the structural patterns differ from language to language. One way in which German differs from English is that it gender-marks far more nouns — e. But if a report says: For instance, in a text about translation problems in the EU, a sentence begins: The cost — the translation loss — is a certain loss of compactness quite acceptable here.

Compounding, too, differs from language to language. English has no compact noun match for e. Only the briefest of illustrations can be given here. And then consider the anomalies that keep the translator alert: The point underlines the crucial importance of grasp of context and meticulous dictionary work.

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We come now to what is perhaps the most familiar grammatical reef of all in translation from German to English: The information is incidental, so in this case, at least, a solution with two main verbs is out of the question. A relative clause, again, would be wordy, tending to unbalance the TT. The extended attributive phrase is frequent in all formal written German, particularly when space is short: It is up to the translator to minimize these translation losses.

Every case has to be taken individually. Considerations of emphasis may be outweighed by others, for instance clarity or elegance. Here is another example. Some common subjunctive uses in German pose no particular translation problems: The subjunctive of reported speech is a different matter. Among the variants to choose from are: Informal discourse often simply puts reported speech in the indicative. And so, when the subjunctive is chosen for reported speech, its use invariably comes across as deliberate and meaningful. Two situations involving sustained — not necessarily uninterrupted — use of the subjunctive of reported speech offer expressive possibilities that are distinctively German and need to be rendered in other ways in English translation.

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Take the example of political journalism. Given that German has at its disposal appropriate verb forms as clear reminders that reported material is reported, another rhetorical advantage follows: The switch into indicative brings back the anchor voice of the journalist: However, the appearance misleads.

Consequently the extended narrative subjunctive mode in German confronts literary translators with a real challenge. Our examples in this chapter so far have shown some areas in which German and English grammatical arrangement consistently differ. The areas we discussed are only an illustrative selection.

But it is clear that translation loss on the grammatical level is universal and inevitable. Accordingly, translators tend to give priority to the mot juste and to constructing idiomatic TL sentences, accepting inevitable changes in grammatical structure or economy.

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Of course, an exception may be made when the translator has reason to colour the TT with exoticism. More often, the ST may have salient textual properties resulting from the manipulation of grammatical structure. A typical issue is that of syntactic simplicity versus syntactic complexity.

We referred in Chapter 4 to an extreme case, the ten-page sentence in Austerlitz — which the translator not surprisingly keeps intact. With a casual, disorganized or incoherent ST such as, for example, early eye-witness accounts of a frightening event, the situation is quite different.

Meaning of "Querruder" in the German dictionary

Here, provided always that the message is more important than the presentation, the translator need not feel obliged to respect grammatical anomalies or errors in the ST. More organized or formal STs may well also allow some freedom over syntax issues such as sentence length. This is a point that arises in Practical 8. In some sorts of text, however, the translator has little choice, and must usually adhere strictly to the norms governing such texts in the TL. In such cases, TL grammar will certainly demand grammatical transpositions, but the imperative priorities are to respect the structural and intellectual integrity of the ST message and to observe the TL conventions for formulating such messages.

Here is an example for discussion. It is taken from a European Council decision in late on international co-operation against terrorism. It is not clear which of the texts, if either, Grammatical and sentential issues 85 is the ST. Which text is a translation of which is not the issue here, however; the point is that they exemplify German and English conventions for the genre. Article 1 5 Establishment of the evaluation mechanism 1.

Each Member State shall undertake to ensure that its national authorities cooperate closely with the evaluation teams set up under this Decision with a view to its implementation, with due regard for the rules of law and ethics applicable at national level. Article 2 15 20 Evaluation subjects 1.

In addition, the Article 36 Committee shall decide the frequency of each evaluation exercise. This is something to discuss in the practical, after reading the remainder of this chapter. A different grammatical arrangement, however, would most likely announce a different communicative purpose. In each version, the grammatical arrangement marks the utterances as having a particular communicative purpose, whatever the overtones.

When, as here, the communicative purpose of a grammatical arrangement is studied, rather than the grammatical arrangement in its own right, the utterance is studied on the sentential level: Any text counts on the sentential level as a succession of sentences, each with a built-in communicative purpose. This purpose is usually conveyed by one or more of three features: It is possible to take the same words, in the same order, and turn them into quite different sentences, with different communicative purposes, purely through manipulating features on the prosodic level — most notably, varying intonation and stress.

These offer far fewer alternatives than the rich nuances of speech. Over and above prosodic control, further possibilities are opened up by combining it with sequential focus and illocutionary particles. This implies that, in translating both oral and written texts, the sentential level needs as much care as any other. Illocutionary particles and sequential focus are easier to represent in written texts than prosodic features are. But how to translate them still cannot be taken for granted, because what is expressed in German through lexis, sequential focus or illocutionary particles may well be more idiomatically expressed in English through voice stress and intonation alone.

In a written TT, however, while some of this impact may be conveyed with italics and punctuation, it will be much vaguer. The effect may in some cases be clearer if an illocutionary particle or a different grammatical arrangement is used. Here are the sentences. Try reading them out to achieve the stated communicative purpose: Written sentence Ich mach e hier nicht sauber. Ich habe nicht vor, hier sauberzumachen. Indignant or belligerent statement.

As previous, but with focus on place or task. Ich jedenfalls mache hier nicht sauber. Firm disclaimer of responsibility. The challenge is how to convey in a written TT the intonation, stress and emotive impact corresponding to each ST sentence. Here, for performance, discussion and improvement in class, are some possible renderings of the German sentences: Someone else will have to clean this up, not me.

We have spent time on these examples to show two things. First, that it is worthwhile — especially with informal STs — investigating whether prosodic features in an English TT will do what grammatical arrangement does in the ST. As we have seen, this will not always work, but it is often a clearer and more idiomatic solution than copying the ST sentence structure.

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However — and this is the second point — reliance on prosodic features in English to convey emphasis or focus may introduce ambiguity, at least in written texts. If the target audience hesitates over how to read a TT sentence in context, where the ST had been clear, the translation will have incurred unnecessary loss.

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  8. So the translator must balance priorities. But in a closely reasoned passage of argument, the translator does well to play safe and use verbal means to ensure the sentence has correct emphasis. Discuss the strategic decisions that you have to take before starting detailed translation of this ST, and outline and justify the strategy that you adopt. Contextual information The book is in A4 format and includes maps; however, most double-page spreads, including that with the ST, have a 7cm-wide column, far right, containing about words of text, and about six good-quality colour photographs of various sizes arranged on the remaining area; the terraced vineyards feature prominently.

    They are excerpted from a bilingual cover feature on Cape Town. A lovely city — but if your skin was the wrong color, you were relegated to its ugly fringe. All too often, the result is the same, although changes are evident: Cape Town has a black middle class, but also white poverty. Grammatical and sentential issues 20 25 30 35 40 45 schwarze Mittelschicht.

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    Aber auch, viel angesagter, das verwinkelte Bo-Kaap-Viertel aus dem Anglican Archbishop Desmond Tutu, a man of wisdom and wit, who is helping his country to live with its truths. He sees the possibility of South Africa becoming a democracy, a complex and lively multicultural society. The hot curries of the latter are the redeeming feature of South African cuisine. Helmut konnte sich nur immer wieder entschuldigen. Und das ist also Sabine, Helmuts Frau. All das sagte Helmut nicht. Du wirst dich wundern, dachte er.